نوع مقاله : تاریخ معماری خراسان بزرگ
1 دانشجوی دکترای معماری، گروه هنر و معماری، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران
2 استاد، گروه هنر و معماری، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران
3 استادیار، گروه هنر و معماری، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Considering the role and importance of qibla as the most important issue in Islamic mosques’architecture, study of this element and the way it affects the architecture of historic mosques can lead to solutions for representation of the direction of qibla in the future mosques’ architecture. In the present study, aiming to identify the factors and elements influencing the strengthening of the direction of Qibla in Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad, comprehensive information about Qibla and its role in mosque architecture and architecture of Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad collected using documentary method, reviewing library texts and field study. Then, considering three factors of kinetic hierarchy, spatial axes, and geometry affected by the direction of Qibla, architectural features and spatial qualities of components and constituent elements of this mosque studied descriptively and analytically. The results showed that the architecture of Goharshad Mosque, besides other common methods in its time, has several innovative features including: the more prominent and magnificent qibla porch (with a tall turquoise dome, thick and tall side garlands,, upside down narrow porch opening, and more decorations), specifying the location of the altar with spatial expansion between the porch and the dome, various types of decorations and the use of muqarnas and decorations Besides creating legibility in the space and facilitating the orientation of the qibla, pairing and symmetrical balance in the design of physical components and decorations around the main and secondary axes of the building, etc., have an effective role in creating a spiritual atmosphere in the mosque.