عنوان مقاله [English]
In the years following the independence of the Central Asian countries, there was an opportunity for researchers to draw on their expertise in historical, economic, and social studies of these societies. Although the ancient city of Merv (in Turkmenistan) has been largely researched by historians and archaeological institutes, the recognition of the nature of the city's transformation during various historical periods and the role of the inward and outward forces in this transformation have received little attention. have been. The research method is descriptive -analytical and the required data were obtained through documentary-library method and refilling of the latest UAV images. The results show that the city was one of the Achaemenid states in the first millennium BC and has developed many physical names in various historical periods and received many names. In the formation of this city, the Maragab River Delta has played an important role in providing fertile water and soil. Influential external forces, including the expedition and establishment of the Achaemenid empires, Alexander the Great and his successors, the entry of Islam into the area, and the Mongol invasion all contributed to the boom or stagnation of one of the four major cities of Khorasan during the Islamic era. Crossing the Silk Road has added to its commercial importance. Merv was the center of the Abbasid caliphate in the east and the seat of the Seljuk government. The city's population during the boom times had reached 200,000. After the Mongol invasion, the city was completely destroyed and never returned to its glory.