عنوان مقاله [English]
The economic spirit of Germany was represented by commercial firms until the last years of the Qajar period (1322-1345 AH). The Germans had tried to find a market in order to sell their products by establishing commercial firms in most of Iran's cities, especially in Mashhad. Mashhad, as the center of Khorasan province during the Qajar period, was one of the most important cities which had great economic and commercial importance. Therefore, it was considered as an important port in northeastern Iran for the import and export of goods. By taking the excellent commercial capacity of Mashhad into account, some German merchants established businesses and commercial firms in the city.
The purpose of this descriptive-analytical study is to answer the following question: Which German firms entered the field of trading in Mashhad from 1322 AH to 1345 AH and which goods were traded? Despite the lack of sources and a detailed view in the field, the findings indicate that the most significant German commercial firms which were operating in Mashhad from 1322 AH to 1345 AH were: Wangos trading, Louisville, Petag Company, IG. The commercial firms by examining the situation in the Mashhad's market, imported jade, decorative, and luxury goods to Mashhad and exported raw materials to German factories and industries.