نوع مقاله : جغرافیای تاریخی خراسان بزرگ
1 استادیار باستان شناسی و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه نیشابور
2 دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی دانشگاه نیشابور
3 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی و تاریخ و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه نیشابور
4 کارشناس ارشد تاریخ دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
عنوان مقاله [English]
The city of Mashhad was particularly important in the Islamic period due to its economic, commercial, religious and pivotal conditions in the province of Khorasan. For this reason, an active mint was established in the city during the Timurid era until 1295 AH / 1878 and during the period of Nasser Al-Din Shah Qajar (1313-1264 AH / 1896-1848) many silver coins were minted between the years 1295-1266 AH / 1878-1850. Although the Nasserian coinage system was nominally adherent to the Tehran regime, in practice each city had an autonomous system, and most city coins were minted with varying amounts of silver purity. This issue raises two questions in the field of Mashhad's main mint. 1. What was the purity of silver coins minted in Mashhad and how did it change? 2. How were the coins of Mashhad, as an important econimic city, compared to other important cities such as Tabriz, Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz? To answer these questions, elemental analysis of coins of this period using Pixie method due to its non-destructive, high speed and accuracy, was the main basis of this study to analyze Mashhad's commitment to the central coinage system in different histories compared to other major cities in Qajar era in Iran. In this study, 30 coins in 30 different dates were used for elemental analysis, which resulted in a trend of changes in the average purity of silver in the three intervals between 90.09% 1880-1880-1280-1290.09%, 1890-1281 1290-1865 years 87.14%, 1295-1291h / 1878-1874m 84.30% and for the whole thirty-year period 88.14%, showing its position in terms of purity of silver compared to the mints of Tabriz (82%), Tehran (90%), Isfahan (84 %) and Shiraz (90%). The results of the Pixie experiment on the specimens indicated that the presence of the copper element (7.24%) and the iron element (2.35%) is higher than the normal amount, and this indicates an optional fusion for the sterilization of the silver metal. In addition, the presence of lead element (0.86%) indicates the use of lead mines (Cerussite and Galena) to produce silver metal and inaccuracy in its extraction. Also, the presence of the gold element (0.55%) can indicate the use of mines of the Cerussite type.