The Identification of Changes in Physical and Climatic Components of Birjand Houses Affected by the Evolution of Lifestyle during the Transition Era

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 PhD Student in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashad, Iran

3 Department of Architecture, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

The study of architectural works, especially houses, shows that in the past, some principles have been emphasized by its builders, which have been originated from lifestyle and climate in various geographical areas and times. Birjand in the transition era, under the influence of various internal and external factors, had a special potential for cultural and political changes and developments and, consequently, architecture. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze and interpret the effect of lifestyle changes in the transition era (late Qajar and the first Pahlavi era) on the architecture of houses in the city of Birjand. Accordingly, researchers seek to answer the question: How the evolution of people's lifestyle have affected the physical components of the architecture and climate of Birjand houses?
Using a positivist approach, the research applies historical and Interpretive-analytical methods to achieve the goal. Data collection was carried out by documentary and field procedures. Therefore, all nationally- registered houses belonged the era selected as the population. Findings indicate that Birjand, along with other Iranian big cities has been affected by lifestyle changes during this era. Being far from cities including Tehran, Mashhad etc., has not protected Birjand against social changes and they have reflected in physical and climatic components and elements during the transition era.

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