Document Type : جغرافیای تاریخی خراسان بزرگ
Assistant Professor, Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Although the Transoxiana was connected to the central plateau of Iran and in many cases dominated by joint political forces, it had different experiences of decentralization in governance. The formation of semi-independent powers in ancient times, the influence of Turkish and Mongol forces in the Islamic era and the annexation and disintegration of Khorasan are manifestations of these lived experiences that, while belonging to the Iranian world, provide a distinct world for the inhabitants. In the continuation of this different life, from the 16th century AD / 10 AH onwards, gradually a new form of power system called the triple khanates (Bukhara, Khiva and Khoqand) appeared in the Transoxiana. In the present article, by focusing on the role of Transoxiana's specific geography in its lack of political centralization, we followed the issue that "Why has the geography of Central Asia during these centuries provided a special form of government in the form of a pluralistic and independent structure such as the triple Khanates?" Our initial answer is that "the fragmentation of Central Asia through its vast deserts and high mountain ranges created three distinct geographical plates in its middle part, beside it economic self-sufficiency, trivializing Silk Road and the constant waves of nomadic migrants caused instability of power in this land." As a result, we have found that, along with all the factors, the change in the nature of its commercial highway and the formation of a landlocked erea are the ultimate cause of all the political fragmentation from a geographical point of view.