Mongol invasion and the historical segregation of Khwarezm from Iran

Document Type : جغرافیای تاریخی خراسان بزرگ


Before the Mongol invasion, Muslim historians and geographers viewed Transoxiana to be part of the Iran and in historical, political, and geographical connection with Greater Khorasan. They sought the convergence and deep historical connection of this region with historical Khorasan. Nomads such as the Kushans, the Hephthalites, and especially the nomads who ruled these areas after Islam, such as the Qarakhaniyan, Seljuks, Qara Khitai and Khwarezmian, never cut off historical ties between these areas and the interior of Iran, and sometimes even formed powerful states. It stretched from the borders of Seyhan River to Baghdad. They sought West, and this perspective created a permenant political, social and economic connection. It seems that Transoxiana, and especially Khwarezm, has lost its historical connection with Iran after the Mongol invasion. In fact, the non-Iranian rulers were not indeed responsible for this historical segregation before the Mongol invasion, despite the Mongol-like political, social, and economic structure. This segregation was the result of the Mongol invasion. The Mongol invasion and following that, the method of separating the conquests of Genghis Khan had profound historical consequences. The cornerstone of these outcomes began with geographical demarcations. This division was important because the border was an identity issue. In the meantime, Khwarezm, which was geographically separated from both Iran and Transoxiana, took a different path in terms of identity, an identity that has changed in political, social, and economic terms. In this research, with the method of historical analysis, an attempt has been made to explain aspects of the historical convergence of Khwarezm, Iran and Transoxiana, and then to examine the consequences of the Mongol invasion.
Keywords: Greater Khorasan, Khwarezm, Khiva, Chagatai, Mongol