The Khiyābān (Safavid Street) of Mashhad: Its physical Changes through the First Pahlavi Period

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Iranian Architectural Studies, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Development, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Graduate Student of Iranian Architectural Studies (MSc), Shahid Beheshti University.


Mashhad Street (which includes Bālā-Khiyābān & Pā’īn-Khiyābān) is one of the oldest urban streets in Iran, and was created during the Safavid era. This street gradually changed in the years after the Safavid era; but, due to the efforts to modernize the cities and align them with the needs of the new age in the first Pahlavi period, the process of transformation of this street accelerated and many of its historical qualities were lost. This research in an attempt to represent the physical changes of “The Khiyābān” of Mashhad during the first Pahlavi period. As a historical study, this research is done by combining descriptive and interpretive methods under the strategies of historical researches, through document research and library study. This research indicates that the physical changes of Mashhad Street during the first Pahlavi period can be divided into temporal phase and spatial territories. In the first phase, physical changes happened with great pace and in a wide area, but more or less in the same way as the past; But in the second phase, after stabilization of the general appearance of the street walls, the street was renovated with modern materials and methods. In the first phase, the renovation of the eastern third of Bālā-Khiyābān went along with the Pā’īn-Khiyābān; But in the second phase, the eastern and middle third of Bālā-Khiyābān excelled in physical developments, and the western third of Bālā-Khiyābān, stood at the end of the queue of physical developments.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 13 March 2023
  • Receive Date: 10 December 2022
  • Revise Date: 05 March 2023
  • Accept Date: 13 March 2023