عنوان مقاله [English]
Shah IsmailⅠ founded the Safavid Empire. Announcing the Twelve Shiite religion, he separated his country from the Uzbeks and Sunni Ottomans. Safavid rulers had issued many charges during their kingship, but some of these charges were specially carved on the stones and, according to the subjects of the charges installed in the proper places in order to inform the public. These charges include a variety of issues such as social, cultural. and economic ones. Many of these lithographs were about financial problems and were installed in crowded places by order of Shah Tahmasb Ⅰ and Shah Abbas Ⅰ. In this study, 9 lithographs of the Safavid period were investigated in Neishabur, Sabzevar, Torbate-Jam, and Mashhad. The research questions are: 1) what are the subjects of the lithographs of Neishabur, Sabzevar, Torbate-Jam, and Mashhad? And 2) where were the places of the installation of these lithographs? The results of this study showed that the subject of a large number of lithographs is related to national tax exemption, discount to the city’s gate guards, prohibition of entering to the houses of people by state forces, prohibition of receiving money for Shiite burial, supporting the tribes (including Abdal-Lou, Baghdadlou and Hendouyan), and supporting business owners (like Jamaate Farashan, Gav Koshan, kohne chian, Mashategan, Tork Tabiban, Soudmalan, Shabanan, Lolian, Moghanian, Mamachegan). These lithographs also refer to court positions and ministerial posts (the minister of Khorasan, Mostofian) military positions (like Ghurchian), and social and administrative classes (like Sayyids, rulers, feudalism, Hamesaldaran, tenants) whci provide a valuable source of information for understanding the social and economic situations of the society in Safavid period. At last, these lithographs were generally installed in the entrance section of mosques.