عنوان مقاله [English]
The civilization of the Great Khorasan developed in the second half of the third millennium BC. For the first time, cultural materials of the great Khorasan civilization were obtained from the sites which are in the sedimentary deltas of the Merv and Tajan, so archeologists called it Bacteria-Margina Archaeological Complex and believe that this civilization was formed there for the first time, some of the researchers believe that the origin of it is in Khorasan of Iran. The primary purpose of writing this article is to identify and introduce the cultural sites of the Great Khorasan culture in the watershed of Kashafrood and to identify the relationship between this cultural area and southern Turkmenistan, the zone of Balkh and Oxus River. The present research has been done with a descriptive-analytical approach and relying on library and fieldwork. Based on the surveys and excavations, the findings of this civilization in a wide geographical area in the watershed of Kashafrood, north of Hezar Masjed mountain range, south and southeast of Turkmenistan, north of Afghanistan, south of Shahjahan and Binalood mountain range (in the cities Jajarm, Sabzevar, and Nishaboor), in South Khorasan province in the cities Dermiyan, Ferdows, and Tabas have been obtained. The cultural materials of the great Khorasan civilization in the watershed of Kashafrood were obtained from eight sites. This shows that this basin has an excellent ability to attract human groups in this period. Based on the studies over the wares and places of the watershed of Kashafrood, it was recognized that the pottery tradition of the great Khorasan civilization for the of Uzbekistan and this watershed.
Keywords: The great Khorasan Civilization, The watershed of Kashafrood, Mashhad plain, Bacteria-Margiana Archaeological complex, Middle Bronze age, Late Bronze age.