عنوان مقاله [English]
Historical appearance of city is not similar in different civilizations and cultures. These civilizations have formed different cities; because the aim and perspective of these cultures to the cities are different. In the context of ancient Iran, investigating Iranian cities shows some mutual features specifically in their spatial organizations. Ancient Iranian cities are exactly what the kings would like to. In this regard, in examination of ancient Iran city always reveals the role of king in the quality of formation and even in spatial organization of it. Shahr-Tepeh is a Parthian site located in Dargaz district, near to Iran-Turkmenistan borders. Based on archaeological surveys this site is one of the largest Parthian sites in the northeast of Iran. In addition, archaeological excavations indicate that this site is one of the most important sites in early Parthian period. Beside archaeological excavations, systematic sampling survey is another archaeological study in this site. The most frequent findings of this survey were ceramic fragments, in addition to some kiln wasters, gypsum plaster and impressed designs bricks. In second phase of archaeological studies, some elements of urban forms of Shahr-Tepeh were revealed: Rampart, Gateway, Kohandege, Sharestan, Industrial area and Wastewater system. This article tries to introduce and describe spatial organization of Shahr-Tepeh based on archeological findings of this site specifically by these urban elements. To find the reliable results of spatial organization, urban elements of Shahr-Tepeh have been studied in the context of history and geography of region. This article showed not only Shahr-Tepeh urban elements are real examples of spatial organization of city in early Parthian period, but also revealed all of urban elements were formed in a unique pattern of city in ancient world. The best characteristic of this early Parthian spatial organization is the exact separation of all urban elements in Kohandege. The Arg, Sharistan, and the industrial zone have been separated and limited by overall barrows and external ditches.